Appendix - Guide to the pronunciation of Welsh

Guide to the pronunciation of Welsh

Facts to remember:

1- Welsh is a phonetic language which means the spelling guides the pronunciation.
2- the letters J, K, Q, V, X, and Z do not occur in modern Welsh.
3- ALL letters are pronounced even H

There are 28 letters in the Welsh Alphabet comprising 7 Vowels and 21 Consonants and 13 dipthongs

There are 28 letters are: A | B | C | Ch | D | Dd | E | F | Ff | G | H | I | L | Ll | M | N | Ng | O | P | R | Rh | S | T | Th | U | W | Y

The dipthongs are: Ae | Ai | Au | Aw | Ei | Eu | Ew | I'w | Y'w | Oe | Ow | Wy | Ywy

The examples are Welsh words.

a: short A as in man Ex. abber
long A Garn (garn)

ae, ai, and au: 'y' as in "my". Example: ninnau (nineye); mae (my); henaid (henide); main (mine); craig (crige).

aw: aw as the 'ow' in cow. Example: mawr (mour); prynhawn (prinhown); fawr (vow)

b: same as in English

c: the English 'k'

ch: as in German 'sprechen" or Scotch 'loch' or Greek "X chi"

d: the English 'd'

dd: the English 'th' as in 'this'

e: English short e as in 'pen': Italian long e as in 'sera'

eu, ei: as the 'ay' in pray. Example: deisiau (dayshy), teulu (taylee)

ew: as in you. Example: mewn (meh-oon); tew (teh-oo).

f: the English v 'vent'

ff: the English f as in 'fair'

g: the English g as in 'gun'

ng: as in the English 'song'

h: always the aspirated English 'hat'

i: the English short i as in 'tin'

l: the English l

ll: unvoiced l; place tongue in position to pronounce 'l' then breath past the tongue without use of vocal chords.

m: as in English 'man'

mh: when it occurs at the beginning of a Welsh word "penfymhen" spoken as pen fy m hen

h: as in English

nh: same as in 'mh' nhen pronounced 'n hen'

o: short o the same as English 'hot'

p: same as in English

ph: same as in English

r: always a rolled 'r'

rh: the r and h must sound rh r hen

s: same as English single

t: same as English

th: as in the English 'that'

u: more like the French u than the English ee; so that "culni" would be keuill-nee

w: In Welsh this is a consonant and a vowel; long or short. Short 'w' as the 'oo' in English 'look"
Long 'w' as in English "moon"

y: In Welsh three vowel sounds. Short 'y' as in English 'win"; Long y in the Welsh word 'dyn' would sound 'dean' in English.

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z